Cool the CPU in the data center - laser 3D printing will help

The University of Binghamton (New York) have developed a new technology for cooling processors, which will allow to abandon the thermal paste. Thermally conductive material is applied directly to the surface of the chip using 3D printing. According to experts, their solution can lower the operating temperature of processors in data centers by 10 ° C. 3r? 3175.  
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We will talk about technology and talk about other experimental methods of CPU cooling. 3r? 3175.  
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Cool the CPU in the data center - laser 3D printing will help 3r3191. 3r? 3175.  
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artistic bokeh
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3r3118. How to print "metal thermal grease" 3r3119. 3r? 3175.  
Technology developers inflicted 3r3191. on the processor chip, a thin layer of a metal alloy with high thermal conductivity and with the help of a laser “printed” channels for the coolant in it. For this, the method
was used. selective laser sintering
. 3r? 3175.  
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A layer of metal powder is evenly distributed on the silicon surface. Then the laser is turned on and the beam, guided by movable mirrors, fuses the particles together according to the generated 3D model. The procedure is repeated many times - at each iteration, different sections of the final product are formed. Laser sintering itself happens in less than a second. 3r? 3175.  
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The alloy that is applied to the chip consists of titanium, tin, and silver. The last two are needed to reduce the melting point of the material. Thus, the metal remains in the liquid state longer, which helps to avoid deformation of the layer due to rapid solidification. 3r? 3175.  
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Selective laser sintering made it possible to form a metallic layer one thousand times thick less than the diameter of a human hair. This allows the coolant to take the excess heat directly from the chip and eliminates the need for thermal grease. 3r? 3175.  
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3r3118. What can this technology
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Experts managed to get an alloy with 3r361. thermal conductivity
39 W /(m • K), which is seven times better than other materials for 3r3633. thermal interfaces
- Thermal grease or polymer compounds. This allowed the chip temperature to be reduced by 10 ° C, compared to other cooling systems. 3r? 3175.  
The new technology is designed to solve two problems: reduce the cost of electricity in data centers and extend the life of the processors (as they will overheat less). According to the developers, the invention will reduce the energy consumption of the world's data centers by 5% and allow the IT industry to save up to $ 438 million annually.
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So far, the technology has been tested only in the laboratory and it is not known how it will work in real data centers. However, in the near future, researchers plan to patent their technology and conduct the necessary tests. 3r? 3175.  
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3r3118. Who else is experimenting with cooling chips 3r3119. 3r? 3175.  
Not only at Binghamton University are working on chip cooling technology. Their colleagues from the University of California for the first time synthesized ultrapure boron arsenide crystals with high thermal conductivity. The obtained value approached 1300 W /(m • K), while for diamond (which is considered one of the record breakers in thermal conductivity), it is 1000 W /(m • K). 3r? 3175.  
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The new technology will create efficient heat removal systems in electronics and photonics. However, for this you need to solve a number of problems. Boron arsenide is difficult to obtain on an industrial scale - in the synthesis of crystals, it is often 3r3-338.
arise. defects and toxic arsenic compounds are used in the production of the material. 3r? 3175.  
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Researchers from the University of California are also working to solve the problem of heat dissipation from processors. They are offered 3r3191. change the structure of the chip itself. The idea is to create a silicon crystal structure in which phonons (quasiparticles that transfer heat) will transfer heat at maximum speed. 3r? 3175.  
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Their technology is called "perforated silicon." The board drilled tiny holes with a diameter of 20 nm, which accelerate heat dissipation. In the case of the optimal arrangement of the holes, the thermal conductivity of the silicon wafer is
r3r3191 increases. by 30%. 3r? 3175.  
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This method is still far from implementation - only the model is ready. The next step is to explore the potential of technology and the possibility of application in real systems. 3r? 3175.  
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PxHere
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3r3118. What's next
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Prior to the practical implementation of new technologies of heat dissipation is far away. All of them are either at the concept stage or at the prototyping stage. Although they have good potential, it’s not yet possible to talk about their widespread introduction in the data center market. 3r? 3175.  
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For this reason, the data centers are now experimenting 3r3191. with other ways of cooling. One of the latest trends is liquid cooling . According to 3r31-30. data 3r3191. Uptime Institute survey, technology has already implemented 14% of data centers around the world. Experts expect that in the future this figure will increase due to the increase in the density of equipment in the data center. As with a large number of nearby servers, air cooling is difficult. 3r? 3175.  
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Another
One trend 3r3191. - 3r3138. AI systems for controlling air conditioning systems 3r3139. data center. According to 3r3-340. score 3r3191. research organizations, about 15–25% of data centers already use such machine learning algorithms. And it is expected that in the future, the popularity of intelligent technologies in the data center will only increase. 3r? 3175.  
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