"Digital States": how they evolved
In last article we figured out what the digital states are in essence, on what ideas they are based and what were the first working systems in the US and the USSR.
Now we propose to move on to an important period when the possibility of combining disparate technologies on one platform met with a desire to make them mass.
/ PXHERE / CC
To meet the consumer
In the review of the first systems of the digital state, we stopped in the 1980s and noted that in the States by that time formed thematic research groups and introduced several IT solutions. For example, filing tax returns through a single information portal.
In the 90's, the term "digital state" did not yet exist. He was offered later, but some ideas were already in motion. In 199? US President Bill Clinton concerned about the effectiveness of the state apparatus and formed an analytical group. In the same year she submitted a report suggesting steps to reduce the level of bureaucracy and reorientation to the needs of citizens.
In 199? came out report " Modernization of state systems based on information technology ". It formed the main idea of the TG - the ministries had to start using IT to improve the effectiveness of interaction between citizens, business and the state. Special attention was paid to the synergy of public services and technologies. Based on these developments, " was formed. Memorandum on the digital state ". It was addressed to the heads of executive bodies and departments, who later joined the work.
The memorandum provided a set of guidelines for the concept of the TF. One of the basic principles related to the work with information and ordered to organize it not by individual departments, but by service categories. The second principle is the openness and convenience of citizens' interaction with state organizations and the provision of information in an understandable form. The third is the security and confidentiality of such interaction.
In December 199? the Clinton administration carried out the first attempts to introduce digital state systems on a national scale. By 200? already 43% of Americans had were provided. access to the Internet, so that the situation had to realize the idea of a public digital portal of public services. It was launched in 2000 on the domain FirstGov.gov, now - renamed to USA.gov.
In 200? George Bush replaced Bill Clinton as president of the United States. His presidential program contained the development of the concept of the TG: " Extended digital state "Provided for the need to improve IT in the public sector, simplify business processes and consolidate information flows of various government ministries and departments.
To achieve these goals, an ad hoc working group was established in 2002. She is has chosen 24 initiatives and prepared a business case for each of them, assessing the potential costs, benefits and risks. Among them there were such services as E-Authentication (portal of digital signatures); GovBenefits.gov (portal of state benefits); Business Gateway (portal for business).
The central event in the process of expanding the TG system was the adoption of " Law on the digital state " in 2002. Its provisions established a special department in the Administration and Budget Office and encouraged the use of IT in the provision of public services and inter-agency communications.
In 2003 was published updated strategy of the digital state. She put the interests of citizens in the center of attention - in the document there were such phrases as "access to three clicks".
Other significant ideas related to interdepartmental communication, attracting and retaining a skilled workforce to support all IT initiatives. Within a year, with the publication of the law, such portals as volunteer.gov (for coordination of volunteer groups) and regulations.gov (for the publication of official documents of state bodies) were launched.
The strategy also touched on the recommendations for working with the information architecture of government enterprises (Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework). The first version of the best practices was launched in 1999. It is based on The Zakman model .
The main task is to increase the efficiency of the work of ministries and departments. The strategy of the digital state of 2003 emphasized the role of this set of best practices. It was one of the first options for an integrated approach to centralizing and consolidating information services.
Study 200? conducted by the American Association of Public Administration and the United Nations, confirmed that all the efforts of the US government were not in vain - the country outstripped the rest of the UN member states in the development of the TF systems.
However, in most cases, citizens still had to either telephone or personally apply for government services. The problem was also that electronic forms often had to be supplemented with paper applications with a signature, and in some states there was simply no access to any electronic state services. There was a situation when there was all the necessary infrastructure, legislation and strategy, but there was no single format for the work of the TF systems. With these authorities had to figure out the next years.
/Flickr / Tony / CC
Asian digital state
Not only the US authorities were concerned about the transition to a new level of government and state services. Along with the western countries with a high level of penetration of the Internet, Asian countries are among the leaders.
So, Singapore has achieved great success on the way to building a digital state. Already in the 80's the country began to implement the national plan for "computerization". Within its framework, the National Computer Council (NCB) was established. One of the important areas of his work was the computerization of public services. At the first stages, the council was engaged in automating work functions and document circulation in government institutions.
In 198? TradeNet was launched, which served as a single platform for trade and logistics operations. By 200? the country had formed strategy IT2000 Masterplan . A significant part of it is devoted to the consolidation of IT resources around the solution of the problems of citizens of the country. As a result, the Action Plan for the Implementation of the TG Concept was proposed for 2000-2003. Its main message is that government departments should no longer be isolated from each other and provide comprehensive services.
For example, since 200? all residents of Singapore at the age of 15 years can apply for SingPass - a digital identity card for transactions with the government portal of online services.
Both China and South Korea had their own programs to create a digital state. But we will stop at Japan, which today is one of the leaders in the field of digitalization of public services. In the period from 1999 to 200? the government of Japan proposed several directions for the development of the TG: Basic principles of a society based on information and communication; Law , regulating these principles; program e-Japan , uniting all measures for building a digital society; and, finally, itself. program by construction of the TG.
Already in 199? a unified information platform was launched in the country, which unified ministries and departments - WAN Kasumigaseki . An important step for the dissemination of the concept of the TG was acceptance of in 2000 the Charter of the Global Information Society. The main idea was that all people should have access to the benefits of this society. The document was proposed for signature by the G-8 members. Russia has become one of the countries that signed the Charter.
The birth of the digital state in Russia
Even before the signing of the Charter, attempts were made in Russia to digitize the state sector, for example, the creation of " Concepts of the state information policy ". By 199? it was prepared by the State Duma's profile committee. In the concept there is an analogy with other documents of that time created in the USA. The interests of society were a priority, and IT served as a tool for their servicing.
The ideological continuation of the concept was the federal program " The development of informatization in Russia for the period until 2010 ". She considered both practical issues such as the formation of infrastructure, as well as socio-economic and moral aspects of working with IT at the state level, respecting cultural and historical traditions, values and ideals. The document was never approved. Thus, to the signing of the Charter of the Global Information Society, Russia came without an operational plan or a digital state project. Nevertheless, like the other members of the Group of Eight, the country has committed itself to developing the IT sector for the benefit of society.
Specific measures were taken with the launch of the federal program "Electronic Russia". It was launched in 200? but its implementation is complicated the fact that only 19% of government personnel and 1% of government officials had access to the Network. The situation was reflected in the indexes of readiness for the digital state - within ten years Russia could not move beyond the 50th place. In 200? among the leaders were were USA, Chile, Australia, Mexico and Great Britain. In 2005-m - USA, Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, South Korea. Russia was located between Uruguay and the Republic of Belarus.
However, already in 2003 in Russia began to be implemented project on the large-scale introduction of information technology in federal agencies. According to Leonid Reiman, who at that time held the post of Minister of Information Technologies and Communications, about 80% of departments and ministries switched to electronic document circulation in the early 2000s. However, summing up the program, the ministry is was forced to state disappointing results. "Electronic Russia" has not achieved its goals, but, as later said Leonid Reiman, laid the important foundations for the development of the TG systems in Russia.
About how the development of the TG in our country and in other countries continued, we will describe in the next part.
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