In addition to crypto-currencies: what else is used for blocking

According to Research and Markets, the size of the global block-market by 2023 will grow up to $ 6 billion at an average annual growth rate of 48%. Over the past two years, we have seen an increase in investments in companies engaged in the development of blocking applications for the financial sector.
For example , Chain of San Francisco, which is creating a block-based solution for financial institutions, attracted almost 44 million investments from various organizations, including Nasdaq and Visa. Another example - Coinbase, offering wallets for crypto currency, received $ 217 million from Andreessen Horowitz, New York Stock Exchange, etc.
However, there are other areas in which blocking technology is used, for example, medicine, as well as notary and public services. About how the blockade changes the appearance of these areas and what projects are developing already today, we will tell further.
In addition to crypto-currencies: what else is used for blocking

/image DennisM2 PD


At the beginning of the year, the research agency IBM Institute for Business Value held a survey in 16 countries among 200 heads of health organizations. About 72% of them noted that they plan to implement solutions based on block-technologies by 2020. At the same time, 16% are already using block-based solutions in their work.
Blocking will allow delete cases of counterfeiting of medicines and optimizes the processes of their transportation, since at each stage of delivery the origin of the drug is easy to verify. Distributed registries also formalize and secure the exchange of medical records, help protect important information from hackers and give patients more control over their health indicators.
For example, now in Boston work 26 different management systems for electronic medical records, each of which presents and transmits data in its own way. Important information (for example, information about allergic reactions to drugs in a patient) is often "scattered" between several bases and sometimes is not available at critical moments.
According to John Halamka, technical director of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the blockade will help in solving these problems. Therefore Halamka together with scientists from MIT Media Lab developed the platform MedRec , based on Ethereum. The system uses smart contracts to support all operations.
For example, the Patient-Provider Relationship Contract (PPR) contract is concluded between two nodes of the system, when one of them manages the medical records of the second (in particular, when the list of prescribed medications for the patient changes). And the Summary Contract (SC) contract allows patients to view the history of medical records.
One of the main difficulties faced by developers of blocking solutions outside the crypto currency is securing the security of the block. For example, in the case of bitcoin, the miners use their computing systems and consume electricity to perform the calculations necessary to verify the data in the blockroom. In return, they receive a reward in the form of digital money.
Projects that are not connected with crypto-currencies can not provide the network participants with a similar form of remuneration. Therefore, it is difficult for them to interest the audience. However, the creators of the MedRec project solved the problem: healthcare organizations and research agencies will be protecting information in the blockroom.
They will perform the role of miners and use their equipment and computing infrastructure to maintain the integrity of the detachment. In return, MedRec will provide them with access to anonymous patient data (with the consent of the latter) for epidemiological and other studies.
For example, such a project is already implemented in Estonia. Since 200? all hospitals and doctors of the country must translate information about the health of the population into digital format. Recently, for her safety is responsible blockade.
The distributed register appears as a database for medical records. When changes are made to the patient's medical record, this event is immediately recorded on the network, along with information about what was changed, deleted, added. This level of transparency allows therapists, surgeons, pharmacists and other professionals to obtain up-to-date and correct information about the patient, with which the "according" the community.
The system gives possibility to make more accurate diagnoses taking into account the fully documented medical history, to direct the actions of doctors in crisis situations (for example, to provide information on allergic reactions to drugs) and even to adjust the treatment for chronic diseases over time (depending on the patient's condition change).
In addition to medical information, the insurance companies or police stations responsible for issuing driving permits may apply to the detachment. In 201? Estonian road authorities got access to 8?000 medical records of the country's residents who came to exchange driving permits to confirm their state of health.

Registration of ownership rights

The block is a distributed digital database (or registry), records in which are protected by cryptographic algorithms. Therefore its often consider as a solution for registration of property rights.
For example, the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh together with the startup ChromaWay work over the block-project for the registration of ownership of land. The Russian government is also about the beginning of testing of such a system. According to press service of the Ministry of Economic Development, the experiment will be held in the period from January to July 2018.
As the Minister of Economic Development Maxim Oreshkin notes, the Rosreestr system is expensive and works slowly and inefficiently, which translates into big costs for the population and companies
All participants in the transaction - sellers, buyers, banks, realtors - forced to conclude treaties with each other to protect themselves against possible financial losses. All this takes time and money. Blocking will allow to optimize expenses, excluding intermediaries in some cases, and will ensure automatic fulfillment of agreements with the help of smart contracts.
In addition, in 201? Bitfury together with the National Agency of Public Registry of Georgia beginning project to create a block-platform for registration of land plots. Before the advent of the system to buy or sell land, residents of the country accounted for personally apply to the National Agency, file documents and pay from 50 to 200 dollars. Blocking technology allowed to reduce the cost of the "commission" to 10 cents.
Already from the end of February this year, information on the statement of real estate automatically is sent to in the blockroom. And on the official page of the agency there was a function to verify the validity of information in a distributed registry.
The platform for registration of property rights is realized on the basis of our open framework for creating blockbuster Exonum. We are deployed distributed service for the formation of temporary marks "on top" of the existing register of ownership of real estate. At the moment, only the hashes of certificates from the registry get to the block, but at the next stage we plan to post all the data on the purchase and sale transaction in the register. Technological demo system you will find here .
In the future, we expect to continue work on the implementation of block-technologies in Georgia - one of the priority areas are notary and public procurement.
In this case, block technology can be used to register rights to other property: houses, cars, even ideas and works of authorship. For example, ASCAP and SACEM create block system for the protection of music copyright.
One of the tasks of the organization is putting together two key standards for the identification of music: ISRC and ISWC . Blokchan will speed up the process of recording songs and tracks and will allow you to monitor their playback. Musicians will receive the ability to upload their work and their metadata to the unit, and when listening to a song between it and the listener, a smart contract describing the conditions of use will be concluded for personal listening, commercial use on the radio or in the film, and so on
A similar initiative is is promoting block-project dotBlockChain in cooperation with SOCAN, MediaNet, Songtrust, CD Baby and FUGA.
Over blocker technologies for copyright protection work in Russia. At the conference "Crypto currency and other products of blockade technology as objects of intellectual property", participants submitted several blocking solutions for fixing digital information: the project of TSU, the video platform Lifechain and the system FactFix. Resources write to the blockade any digital information - images, videos, creative ideas, FactFix allows you to even leave a review about a restaurant.
Records will be recorded in an open detachment, and project participants, in the event of copyright disputes, will be able to witness in court and confirm that such a file (or a musical composition, or a picture, etc.) was actually created at the specified time, and the rights to it belong participant of the platform.
/image Greg Dunlap CC

Organization of "electronic governments"

In the world of about 192 countries try implement in the state structures of block-technology. Among them are Sweden, Georgia, Brazil and Estonia.
The last few years the government of Estonia developed a platform for identification of people who are not citizens of the country - e-Residency . The project participants became so-called electronic residents and lt; /RTI & gt; the opportunity to verify documents and use the services of electronic banking and other services that are available to Estonians.
Now the developers of e-Residency
Block in the project infrastructure to improve its security. The team of engineer Kaspar Korjus is working on this, which took the first place in the Forbes Estonia ranking in the category "Technology and Finance" (among entrepreneurs up to 30 years old).
State structures of Russia also plan to introduce block-technology. At the beginning of the year, Rosreestr, the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending and Vnesheconombank launched a joint project, within which registered the first share agreement with the use of a distributed register. The system was developed using our Exonum platform.
Block in the future can apply when Rosreestr interacts with the Foundation for the protection of the rights of participants in shared construction, where developers pay insurance contributions in the amount of 1.2% of the amount of contracts. This money, if necessary, will be used to pay compensation to participants in shared construction. The idea is that the Rosreestr will not be able to register the contract unless it receives confirmation from the Fund that the developer has paid the insurance premium.
The project is being tested in the Leningrad Region, but later it is planned to apply the technology in other regions.
Distributed registers are capable of transform almost every aspect of government activities. For example, to become the basis for voting systems.
Earlier this year, the US exchange Nasdaq successfully has applied e-Voting system for voting of the company's shareholders. Elections with the use of block-technology similar to on a crypto-currency transaction, but using special "colored" coins, which voters transfer to the account of their chosen candidate. To determine the winner, it is enough to check the accounts after the election is over. Since the public blockade is transparent, any user can track the fate of his voice.
Also, the system for electronic voting allows us to create our Exonum platform. Technological demo of the electronic voting system created with the help of Exonum, you can find by .
We noted only a few areas in which the customer helps improve the user experience and reduce costs. In addition to these, you can select energy, the Internet of things, as well as operations with goods and raw materials (for example, tracing the origin of diamonds).
The block is capable of to optimize business processes in areas where you often work with middlemen whose services are paid, you have to process data that requires a high level of trust, or interact with a large number of independent participants (or customers). In these three cases, blockage is able to bring benefits in virtually every sphere of the economy.
Our other materials on the topic:
Blog Exonum: "Thoughts, stories and ideas"
Brief history of Rust: from a hobby to the most popular YAP according to StackOverflow
A look at Tokio: how this asynchronous event handler works.
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