Debian & # x1F49A; Devuan, systemd & # x1F91D; sysvinit

A few days ago published ahead of schedule next version classic unix /linux initialization system sysvinit ???r3r3455. . The previous issue ??? was released a little over a month ago.
Debian & # x1F49A; Devuan, systemd & # x1F91D; sysvinit
What is remarkable about the release of the minor version of the old initialization system (SI), which almost all modern Linux distributions have abandoned, and what is the joy of the open source community and Debian Linux users?

This episode is interesting because the release took place jointly by the two antagonistic development teams of Debian and Devuan, which split 4 years ago because of the situation around 3r3343426. systemd
. But let's order.
Triple voting systemd
A few months before the release of Debian Jessie, project leaders faced the need to decide on an initialization system. At the time of
Already gained popularity and was one of the main contenders. In total, the race was attended by four SI.
The vote also had the option “further discussion required.”
3r361 Results
The first round showed a balance between
and 3r33426. systemd
Each of them received 4 votes. To make a decision, a 2: 1 ratio was needed.
Two weeks after that, at the beginning of February 201? the second round passed, in which nothing new actually happened. Voices divided in the same proportion, it was decided to further debate.
In favor of 3r33426. systemd
voted: 3r3434.
Bdale Garbee - Chairman of the Technical Committee;
Don Armstrong;
Keith Packard - G-guru X, currently working at Valve;
Russ Albery.
Over 3r33426. upstart
voted: 3r3434.
Colin Watson;
Steve Langasek;
Ian Jackson;
Andreas Barth.
And for the third time, the Labor Code voted, greatly simplifying the rules of procedure and raising the question. Having eliminated all secondary issues from the agenda and lowered the decision-making threshold to a simple majority, the committee voted in favor of r3r3426 from the third call. systemd
No, none of the supporters of
I did not go over to the opposite camp, the result of the voting was decided
additional voice
Bidale Garby, Chairman of the Technical Committee, and with a margin of just one vote, the SI issue for Debian Linux was resolved with the previous 4: 4 balance of opinions.
3r33434. Linus shaves Bidale Garby at 3r3138. LinuxConf 3r3455. 2009 3r33427. .
The result of the vote caused a sharp feeling of bitterness, disappointment and injustice among the opponents. systemd
. On the Debian mailing lists, passion has been played out in earnest.
Ian Jackson called 3r3455. Bidale Garbi resign from the post of chairman of the TC. Then, firing steam, he decided at the time to withdraw from participation in the affairs of the TC.
After a couple of days on February 1? it became clear that the decision for Debian Linux was finally made, and in the foreseeable future, the main system for initializing the distribution will be 3r33426. systemd
3r3167. Devuan
The developers of the Debian Linux distribution, who disagree with this state of affairs, have grieved briefly and six months before the release of the 8th version, already on the basis of 3r33426. systvinit
created 3r3174. your fork
and called it
, starting from the phrase
Dev one
The highlight of the distribution kit and its main difference from the parent OS is what started all the fuss. Devuan Linux chose
as SI. In general, the birth of the distribution, was greeted with great enthusiasm among Linux users, not excluding 3r3186. Russian-speaking
parts of it.
June left already the second version of the distribution package on the package base of the latest version of its ancestor - Debian Stretch. In addition to 3r33434. sysvinit
for SI you can also select openrc .
Let's try to understand why there was such a split among the Debian developers, and in general, among a large number of users of different variations of the Linux OS. After all, before there have been difficult decisions and dangerous turns in the history of the development of GNU /Linux: 3r3202. GPLv3 or not
, 3r3204. UEFI SecureBoot
and so on. Why, then, did everyone fall off their coils?
Disputes around systemd
If we reduce the essence of all disputes to one thesis, then we can say that systemd involves the exchange of the most complete management of the initialization of the system and its services to the total rejection of the Unix philosophy.
And the first is fiercely challenged by opponents
but no one disputes the second. Not everyone agrees that
makes the admin's life easier, but few can argue that
and Unix Way are two extremes.
3r33434. systemd provides aggressive parallelization capabilities, uses sockets and D-Bus activation for services that are started, offers daemons to be started as needed, monitors processes using Linux control groups, supports snapshots and system state recovery, mounting and mount points, and also implements dependency-based the logic of controlling complex transaction processes
. 3r33333.
Where did the need arise for such a comprehensive system for managing the initialization of the OS and its processes? I do not believe in conspiracy theories, and therefore I believe that the reasons were in 3r-3274. disadvantages
3r33434. sysvinit
and other SI.
Established in 198? 3–3–3426. sysvinit
I was not able to solve a number of important tasks, such as: 3r3434.
parallel start of processes;
removable media detection;
activation of socket-based services;
reliably control dependencies between different processes and services;
Early event logging through /dev /log 3r32525. .  


All these and many other inconveniences were finally solved in systemd . Standardization of configuration files, syntax unification, and service dependency management based on 3r-3324. cgroups

presumably allowed vendors of commercial Linux distributions to make life easier for admins and 3r-3274. reduce costs 3r33275. server park management.

But what was the price? For some strange design, the brainchild of Lennart Pottering has gone from the usual SI to "a set of building blocks for a Linux system." Quote from home page project. This is a state in the state that manages the connection of devices, file system entry points, network connections, system time service, user sessions, system logs, etc. 3r3434.

At the same time, many DE developers, especially Gnome, began to tie elements of the graphic environment to 3r33426. systemd :

  • power management;  
  • user session management;  
  • view log;  
  • if you close the laptop screen, the events will not be processed;  
  • Wayland.  


All this will not take off in Gnome without special patches, if you choose a different SI except systemd .


The reason for this state of affairs is that it is too difficult to maintain two options for multiple sets of programs: one with 3r33426. systemd and the other without. As a result, a situation is created where it is not possible to choose another SI in the Linux distribution.


3r33434. Cloud keyword tags around systemd on Twitter .




Well, well, there is no possibility of choosing the SI, is it really important? I don’t think it will upset me greatly if there is no possibility of choosing the OS loader, or the DHCP client.


As it turns out many users systemd annoying a lot of things. Early and complete logging of system events from the very moment of launch is nice, but how can you imagine a Linux system with binary log files?


Lennart Pottering can be a good programmer, but his style of communication and reaction to the defects found, to criticism, is less than any criticism. Here is his reaction to defect 5644 .


The defect itself.

3r33354. 3r33333. # mkdir -p /foo /dir {?2}
# touch /foo/.bar{?2}
# cat /etc/tmpfiles.d/test.conf
R! /foo/.* - - - - - 3rr3470. Reboot 3r33434. 3r33333.

Lennart Pottering comment.

3r33434. I am not sure I'd consider this much of a problem. Yeah, it's a UNIX pitfall, but "rm -rf /foo/.*" will do the exact same way, no? 3r33434. . 3r33333.

This is not an isolated case, such a style of communication has earned him ill-fame with the environment of geeks. And this is only part of the claims to systemd and its author. By virtue of its scope, scale and complexity, the system can be fragile as SI - its main function.


Let it be, systemd surpasses all major SI in its capabilities, but still the question remains. Why do ordinary localhost admins not have the opportunity to choose for Debian Linux and other distributions which are easier to use and debug by SI? After all, not everyone needs a parallel start of processes and quota management.


My understanding of the situation with r3r3426. systemd is that [u] more sophisticated, but at the same time, for many, an unnecessarily complex and opaque SI was imposed on those who needed it and those who do not have it. . Many Linux users did not like this and began to lament the fact that now Linux has become like Windows, but only with open source.

3r33394. DnD are working together on sysvinit

And now finally the good news! Recently, there have been shifts between the Debian and Devuan CI development teams. It was decided to combine efforts in several directions.

  • Maintain afloat sysvinit for those who are ready to use Debian Linux with all restrictions, including without a graphical environment. Devuan's help is needed in preparing the 10th version of Debian, known as 3r-3426. Buster .  
  • As a result of this “cross-pollination”, Debian users helped their Devuan colleagues in preparing the 3r33426 release. sysvinit ???. Due to this, the timeline was reduced and the issue took place before NG, as was said at the beginning of the post.  


If common sense prevails, then both groups of developers will be able to set and implement more relevant for all Debian /Devuan users goals - to achieve full support for several SI for Devuan Linux: 3r3244. openrc , 3r32424. s6 , 3r32424. runit , 3r32424. nosh and so on. Similarly, Debian Linux has full support for at least one other than 3r3343426. systemd
SI would certainly benefit.
P. S. In Amsderdam on April 5-? 2019 3-3332. will be held
first Devuan Linux conference.
Additional reading
3r3444. Init system support in Debian
Why ‘init’ Needed to be Replaced with ‘systemd’ in Linux
Collaboration between Devuan and Debian leads to new sysvinit release.
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