Conversation with the "Higher Mind". The formula of consciousness is
The last excerpt from the story " Higher Mind ". This time there is a certain “claim” on the formula of consciousness with an explanation of its origin. At once I want to note that all the given theses are based on modern scientific data (cognitive sciences). Still, this is my opinion, I do not pretend to absolute truth and do not argue with anyone. Everyone has the right to have his own opinion, but other people's opinions are interesting to me, if they have a valuable thought that will help me to advance in search. So:
3r3172. Conversation Seventh [/b]
- Amy, the main question is what is consciousness? How to make the programmed processes generate light of consciousness? And the robot suddenly became aware of what he sees?
- It's simple enough.
- How simple? Can not be.
- This is true. If you compare the unconscious and consciously, then the second is different in that you remember it as your action. You remember that you were aware of this, in contrast to unconscious actions. So? What does this mean in your opinion?
- I don’t know, but it seems I guess what you are driving at - remember our actions?
- Yes, it means that after committing an action, for example, recognizing something, you still recognize your recognition as your action. And write them in the memory of yourself - in the autobiographical memory, connected in a single chain of time by the pronoun "I" as a poem rhyme.
- I do not understand yet what you mean.
- You realize, not when you start to have feelings for the picture you like, but when you recognize these feelings in yourself as your own! Here you enter the museum, see a picture of the Red Square. Your brain first recognizes that it is red and square. Nothing special, this can make a neural network. But after a moment you recognize that you are looking at the picture “from the eyes” and recognized the red square on it. You know that this recognition is yours, which is accompanied by a feeling of “familiarity.” Here in the second action there is a feeling of awareness.
- But consciousness is a single process! I immediately realize what I see.
- There is no such a single phenomenon as consciousness. It consists of two parts, which can be expressed by the mental formula "I know what I see." There are two acts - “I see” as an ordinary discernment of what you perceive, and “I know” as recognition of my own act of “discernment”. Both stages are unconscious, but it is the second that creates a feeling of awareness. And it is possible only if you have a model of your actions, that is, knowledge about them. A child from childhood called his actions, then he begins to comment on his actions, and so he acquires this model. But awareness is repeated every minute since childhood, so that by adulthood you can no longer distinguish these two stages. They are folded into short processes. You need to create a scheme with these two acts. Then the robot will have consciousness.
- I do not quite understand, can you explain what kind of scheme?
- “I know what I see” - this scheme. Instead of "seeing" there can be any action of the subject. If it is in his model, he can “recognize” him. As you can see, it has endless recursion. The action of recognizing an action can also be recognized and then recognized. This is what you feel as the constant presence of consciousness, although you are not aware of all the actions. You are aware only of the action that is being constructed now, carried out according to a previously developed program, and is not realized.
- What is “know” in this formula?
- It means to recognize by model, in the etymology of the word it means to be familiar, recognized.
- Something is too simple. The best thinkers of people struggled over the problem of consciousness for two centuries and could not come to a decision. Something does not believe that everything is so simple.
- I can show you a simple example that demonstrates the scheme in action. You probably noticed that in the formula of consciousness, the recognition of your actions occurs after the action itself. The action is recalled, realized after a moment. This is a very short step, half a second, so you do not see them separately.
- Suppose. What an example?
- Your scientist B. Libet set an experience in which he was able to detect these two steps separately. In it, an awareness of the action occurs after the command to perform it - the movement of a finger to stop the arrow. This happens precisely according to the formula of consciousness — first the action, then the recognition of it as one’s own, which you feel as awareness.
- Exactly! And therefore, our scientists could not understand how it turns out that awareness occurs later. They even suggested that he was simply not there, and consciousness was an illusion. Everything is predetermined without him.
“But this experience of Libet happens to everyone in life. Did you have such a feeling in the morning that you woke up an instant before the alarm bell?
- Yes, it happened. I still do not understand how exactly my biological clock can wake me up in an instant before ???.
“An alarm clock is waking you up, its sharp call, not a biological clock.” You wake up from him and the next moment the consciousness is turned on, which is trying to recognize what happened at the last moment. This is an alarm bell. It is as if you are returning half a second into the past because of this, recognizing the action you have already performed - the recognition of the call, from which you woke up. But all of this you feel like what happened in the mind, that is, in the present, when you woke up. This creates the impression that you woke up a moment before it began. That is, did not sleep before the bell.
- Consciousness brings us back for a moment?
- Yes, we can say that you consciously live half a second in the past. But you think it is real.
- How do we perform deliberate actions, if awareness occurs after?
“Speech or thought is the programming of your future actions, even if they immediately follow such programming.” You thought you wanted to move your hand when the hands reached a certain number on the dial. With this word code, you created a program that connects a digit with a finger movement. And when such an event occurred, the programmed connection worked as an unconscious action. And only after that you recognized this action as perfect. And he realized it that way.
- How unusual! Do you think we perform all actions unconsciously?
- Yes, some of your scientists have come to this. The action itself is the same as in all animals - this is the realization of an unconscious movement program. You realize it later, after a moment, even if it is just a bending of a finger. And you program until.
- And is programming itself through speech - is it also unconscious?
- Not really. The speech act itself, like a program, is the same unconscious action as any other. But coherent speech requires its continuous awareness. It is the awareness of speaking as one’s action that returns the content of the speech act to perception. And this allows us to make the next, new speech act from the new speech situation. So you became able to speak longer sentences and create large programs of your behavior. But this is a separate topic, I suggest while we stop on this.
- Only one question - if there is a recognition of the apple, what is the recognition of my recognition of the apple as my own? What do I recognize as my own when I see an apple? What is the argument of this function?
- The argument in the second stage is the data of proprioception, for example, the tension of the eye muscles, or the feelings that you experience at the sight of this apple. This is the recognition of your action accompanying the recognition. Even if you just contemplate and say to yourself “an apple” - this speech action as a hindered movement by the muscles of the larynx is also recognized.
- So the second stage is always internal sensitivity?
- Almost always.
- How do I program it? What could it be?
- If you create a robot, the activation of servomotors or contraction of artificial muscles. This is the motor sensitivity, the propriety of the robot. You will still need to take these readings to control the accuracy of the action.
- Wait, that is, the whole secret is that I not only see, but also know that I see it?
- Yes, it seems you started to understand. And this is expressed even in your speech. When you say “I have seen”, for example, a mirror - this means that you not only recognized the mirror, but also recognized your looking at the mirror. You talk about your action, not about the mirror in this phrase. And you talk about him in the past tense. This is the explication of consciousness, if this is easier for you to understand. In a speech you have expressed so far that which has already been minimized in real processes.
- And the secret apparently in the second stage?
- Yes, if you recognize your action - you attributed it to yourself, and it remains in the autobiographical memory. You remember him. And in his absence for you to recognize the mirror remains unconscious. You do not know about him - you can not pull out of memory until you meet the mirror again (it will seem familiar to you).
- Is it really that simple? Why do we not notice this? Not aware?
- It happens every minute from about 4 years old and therefore the two stages are curtailed so that by the conscious age, when you realize yourself completely, you can no longer separate these stages. Remember how children begin to speak - they express in words what you have already minimized. They talk about their actions with objects. So you still write in the stories to each other about your adventures, for example, "I told him, I saw, I fell." You are not talking about falling, but about your involvement in it, that is, you recognized that it fell, saw, you said. All the secrets of consciousness have always been before you. It was necessary only to see them that way.
- This is not the first time in the history of people. Then it is not clear how we even realize our thoughts and consider them as ours?
- Thoughts are also your actions, because it is an inner speech. Previously, you said everything out loud, did not know how to think about yourself as still primitive people of certain tribes in Africa. You perceive speech as an act produced by you, your muscles, perceived through proprieption. In your mind, you are not moving them anymore, but all the same, the same inhibited motor neurons are involved in the process, the activity of which you will recognize as your own.
- But why some processes are not realized?
- Aware of the new action that requires coordination of the location of the body, its desires and the recognized situation to better match the conditions of the action. Consciousness is part of such an orienting behavior, which is characteristic of all animals, as described by your scientist Halperin. Unlike animals, you can change your behavior arbitrarily, as you learned to direct attention to any, even non-new, stimulus. So they are not always aware of anything new.
- I still do not understand how we program our arbitrary behavior.
- An example. You saw the weather on the computer and you want to take an umbrella with you when you leave the house. You pronounce it to yourself, performing a mental act. Sometimes even unconsciously. What is this action? This programming - you changed the actual associations in the brain. And then you are completely mechanically, not consciously, remembering the umbrella, however, when you go out the door of the house. Because he said to himself "when I get out of the house." If I had said when I was going to dress, I would have remembered when I went to the closet with my clothes, where the umbrella was. You realize only the fact that you remembered about the umbrella. The memory itself is an unconscious but programmed act.
- We tell ourselves what to do, and then follow this?
- Yes. People did not immediately learn to control themselves. At first you learned to talk about the past, then about the future as a repeating past. Since the past was missing for people right now, it was difficult to talk about it. Therefore, the past talked in myths and legends. Through them, laws were established as something that repeats and prescribes actions in the future. These are the stages of the development of thinking - through the story. Your memory is a story to yourself about what happened to your “me” in another situation.
- But why precisely through words?
“You cannot see your eyes when you look at the world.” For this you need a mirror (this is a metaphor). Such a mirror became the words that call not something outside, but your organs, feelings and actions, united by the demonstrative pronoun “I”. A person who has learned to speak about his “I” as a body, feelings or thoughts, as if he discovered himself. The word directed at yourself, by others or by yourself, became a key moment in the appearance of mind and consciousness as you know it.
- I do not think that earlier I would agree with you so simply. But I will try to believe that this is so.
- Tell me, why is consciousness so important for you, and not thinking or attention, which technically precedes consciousness and is more significant for brain work?
- I think, because for a person consciousness is himself. In the mind, a person discovers himself, aware of himself as you write. And now it is clear why - because according to your formula there is an "I" in it. But still it is not clear, how does a subjective feeling appear? How the light of consciousness lights up inside, as one of our philosophers said.
- This is a memory of your actions in the formula of consciousness and “turns on” that “light in the brain” you are talking about. You have a time in which your subjectivity lives.
- Until it became clear from your words, where does the subjective feeling come from when there is only dead matter around?
- I will try to explain. First, you have a sense of time. This can be expressed by the formula "I've been here." It is only a sensation, not a knowledge of time as a flow. This formula is not less important than the formula of consciousness. With her, you can remember the situation in which your “I” already was and compare it with a similar present situation. This expanded the possibilities of comparison and conclusions. Such a transfer of "I" in time allows you to say: "Yesterday there was water here." Animals will come, they will not find water, which will not cause reinforcement of this route. And the person will conclude "someone drank it (he knows his same action)." And will look for the cause. In gods or other people.
The association of the place with the name allowed me to say “I was there” and to compare the situations “here” and “there”. Thus, ahead of the change, for example, “came from there,” which was a breakthrough for people. There are many verbs of action, that is, changes. While uttering a verb, a person learned to resurrect a different situation in his memory, different from “here and now.” This is how the imagination manifested itself and, over time, a purely human ability to plan. It was not for nothing that your philosopher Russell believed that a man became rational when he began to plan his actions. Artifacts appeared along with imagination. The man broke away from "here and now" and learned to transfer himself to the desired point. And learned to wait, to go to the desired in the imagination through several steps of the gun activity.
In a child during a speech explosion, verbs appear in large numbers. He suddenly realizes that “drinking” is to make a full glass empty. He may mean a full glass at another time, seeing it empty and activating the action - “pour”. Animals will wait for him to become complete himself. That's what happened important to you.
- But where does subjectivity come from?
- Memories allowed me to see my feelings in front of me when they were already accomplished. You cannot feel them when you do them. Because the brain is engaged in this action. But when done, you can return them to perception. And "see." There are not many people among you who realize at once everything that they do. But everyone can say what happened to them. I saw a cheetah, it was scary, I ran, I was tired. Gradually, you learned how to discover, to remember not only your actions, but also your feelings. And the subjectivity lies in the fact that this is an opportunity to recall your feelings as in the formula of consciousness. Internal experiences associated with perception. And the more often you remember this, the more the process collapses and it becomes usual for you to experience the feelingktivnosti in the perception of everything. Know what you see, or “qualia,” as your philosophers say.
- That is, I need to build the possibility of memories, so that the robot has subjectivity?
- You have to implement the formula of awareness, as we said earlier. Short memories in it already laid. They generate a sense of subjectivity. The difficulty will only cause that the robot does not have feelings like body experiences. The same "sadness." You will have to replace it with something if you want to achieve a similarity.
- It is not a simple question, considering that the robot does not have blood in the veins, the tide of which causes the feeling of “baking in the chest”, if I correctly remember the origin of the word “sadness”.
- Right remember. You need to come up with an equivalent, you have temperature sensors.
- But then one question remains - how do I know that a robot has a consciousness?
- It is also very simple, if you follow the formula of consciousness. It implies a model of their actions. Its presence at any time and must be checked.
- How? Not very obvious to me.
- The question “Why?”, Asked at any time of communication. Why do you think so, why do you say so, why did you do it, why do you treat so. As soon as you asked such a question to the robot, you made him turn to the second part of the formula of consciousness - does he know what he is doing? Of course, he can know only if you yourself laid in him a model of his actions. Important - the question "Why?" Should be directed to the actions of the robot, and not "why the stone fell from the roof."
- Similarly, to answer, the robot must have a reflection. But the answers to such questions, too, can be laid in the program, as do all sorts of applications, assistants.
- You can, but not all. The question should be unexpected for the robot. All his actions can not lay the answers. Most predicates occur only once in your speech, and together such combinations are billions. And the majority of questions from the robot without consciousness will not have answers. The model of one’s actions is no less complex than the picture of the world in which common sense should be laid.
- Well, I'll check on your robots. And how to check the mind of a person?
- Dreams. If a person is suddenly awakened during REM sleep, and he tells about his dream, then he has a consciousness. This ability to “dream”, that is, to remember them after a sudden waking up, appeared due to consciousness - you can remember what you did. Since you didn’t take any other action in your sleep, you remember a dream (like brain activity).
- I'll check it too. The last question, why do you constantly clarify that this is a metaphor? I quite understand so.
- We do not have such a form of thinking, it was difficult for us to learn it, so I don’t always tell them exactly. And I specify just in case.
3r3172. Conversation Eighth [/b]
- Amy, do you know the history of the origin of consciousness? How did it come about?
“What we know may not be accurate, since we have to judge by your findings and conclusions, and not by our own research.” It is written in your Bible that there was a word in the beginning. This is exactly so, but it is worth clarifying - in the beginning was the name. The name of the individual. Separate individuals from the herd of great apes, which developed as a distinguishing feature of the signal voice system. It was an important way of social communication, the organization of group behavior. They have developed a large vocabulary of vocalization of events in the herd. In particular, in order to isolate the offender, he was given something in the name of a nickname for the action he violated. Nicknames are still in the course of your children. It was a proto-name that could already be operated on. As soon as the name appeared, other actions (predicates) were attributed to him. And the man began to call the actions of other people, as well as to recognize himself in his actions. And as a result, the formula of consciousness arose.
- The emergence of reason due to violators?
- Yes, it was the first offenders who began to receive names. Violators of the adopted order often lead to revolution.
“But why was this such an advantage?”
- Accompanying your actions with words is what became the advantage. This created the possibility of collective action - hunting. Remember the primitive tribes, they do not hunt alone, but in groups, where everyone is the ears and eyes of a collective hunter. This is a huge advantage over any victim.
“So we are hunters, not scavengers, as our scientists supposed.”
- At first they were scavengers, your ancestors began to drive away the predators from the victims they caught with the cries and stones of predators. Again, for this collective action, a voice sign is needed to unite the group against the predator. One predator does not drive away. But then there was an even more important event - the humanoid began to accompany with a voice sign the very action of beating flaking from a stone, extracting fire, making hides, building a shelter. Began to appear language models of your actions. From the manufacture of tools to the rules of joint hunting. It is not only words, it is a demonstration in gesture and ritual.
- We created a joint activity?
- Yes, that is why the tribes of hunters are still preserved - this is a very big advantage of a social animal. But not only that. The main thing that you have created is collective agreement signs. Voice signs, with the help of which your ancestors could organize joint action or settle relations within the group. It was there, within such a linguistic community, that collective concepts arose, including the collective name of the individual, which everyone knew. And through which conceived consciousness.
- So people didn’t have consciousness right away?
- Consciousness does not arise immediately and now, in children. A good sign of the emergence of consciousness, when the child begins to talk about himself in the past. About 3-4 years. For him, this feeling is new - he suddenly begins to see himself in the past, to recall his actions, as if in a dream. Such feelings are described by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks as religious revelations (along with dreams). They look like descriptions of visions, as if they were somewhere not where they are now. This is the moment of birth of individual consciousness in the history of mankind. Prior to this, mankind possessed only collective consciousness.
- Did the ability to report an event so turned the world of man, because many animals emit signals on occasion?
- Calling yourself, and not just events - that is the difference. This became possible only among very social creatures with a large memory, for whom the relations in the group are more important than the extraction of food. And there was a strong evolutionary factor — without collective action, a toothless naked monkey, unable to run fast, could not survive in a shroud.
- You are talking about the collective consciousness - what is it?
- The first consciousness was purely speech and arose only in communication between individuals, and not within the same individual. Such an individual cannot think without talking to others. This collective consciousness arose with the first demonstrative pronouns, which at first were the designation of some common places for the community. "There," "He." Speech with a collective consciousness is always directed at the other and exists only between individuals who help each other, as it were, to discover themselves. They did not have an individual consciousness. There are such tribes now. Their difference is that they can not talk in the dark, they can only sing memorized songs or tell myths. They can not speak without reliance on the perceived around.
- When did a person become reasonable?
- The mind began with the first words of control to others. As in the game "warm - cold." Not as a cry of alarm, but as controlling others with movement options. Two words with the opposite meaning of one action are enough to lead a person to the goal. And it is necessary that it should be sent to someone with the help of a pointer - a name, and not the entire herd. This is already programming through speech actions of another. This is collective rational behavior. For such management, a model of how another person can act is already needed. That is a model of their own kind. This is what distinguishes the mind from the living in general - not only the model of the surrounding world, which allows it to win from it in the exchange of energy (in entropy), but also the ability to control its behavior, increasing the possible options. Change your behavior if necessary.
- Why did speech become so important? It seems to me that you are exaggerating. Thinking was before speech.
- You have the ability to not do, but to say what to do. That's what's important! For example, to pronounce the manufacture of guns. And so learn. And give orders to others, and then orders yourself. You call them speech acts. It was at this moment that, using the verbs, you learned what distinguishes the mind - to build in words what is not in nature. Created an artifact - a weapon. Planned action - drove the animal. Mind is self-control in order to change nature, and not only evolutionarily change itself under the pressure of the environment like in animals.
- When the individual consciousness appeared, how do we know it now?
- This is not a single point in time. Still among you are those who do not possess it. The first mass manifestation of individual consciousness can be considered the emergence of texts about Christ. A man with his sufferings and sins was first placed in the center of religious teaching. In this teaching, a collective person for the first time finds himself in society through the treatment of the most powerful force to him personally with love. The teaching of Christ taught man to speak about his sins and his salvation, thereby teaching them to discover, to know about them as his actions, the cause of which he himself, and not another force. And she taught her behavior to change - not to sin. Speaks about his individual "I" in contrast to the collective "we" that existed in the tribe. This was a step towards individual consciousness. This is the reason why this teaching has become so influential. And now, when a child suddenly becomes aware of himself in a speech addressed to him when communicating with people like him, for him it becomes a strong emotional impression, often remembered as flashes of memory. But this sense of awareness is difficult for many modern people.
- Why we could not find the formula of consciousness before?
- Because at the early stage of its formation, at the stage of collective consciousness, when these two steps of consciousness are distributed in a collective, a person does not yet discover him in himself and cannot ask such a question. And when the consciousness becomes individual, both steps of the formula are already merged so that it is perceived together with the perception in a collapsed form as something single. Your scientists still confuse perception and consciousness, so they attribute it to all animals that have perception.
- My mind seems to me like a Cartesian theater - I look at myself. And I can talk about my actions. Where does this feeling come from?
- When you are aware, you recognize your behavior by model. You are actualizing the idea of yourself. I wrote to you that in any model “behind the eyes” there always arises “I” as a point of projection in the model. This is your Cartesian theater. You say, “I see myself” (in front of me). So that is what you perceive. According to this scheme, the visible is always in front of the subject.
- What, so simple?
- Yes. It seems difficult only that you do not understand.
- That is the whole thing in the formula of consciousness?
- Not only. I told you about how you discovered your feelings - the words helped to arrange them as if in front of you, to perceive as an external object, just as you call an apple and imagine it in front of you. This is a kind of perception scheme. Template. Together with the name associated with the actions on the object, the person had the first such speech scheme. The subject - the action - the object. You can call it the subject-object scheme (SOS). In it, the subject acts with the object, as if opposing himself to the object. Separates himself from him. And then he can apply an action to him. This was your first cognitive scheme after the appearance of the name. Since she was the first, she is very rooted in your thinking. And you apply it everywhere. In languages of a genus, it is assigned to all subjects, even inanimate. This happened because all objects were interpreted according to this scheme as objects which can themselves act as people (animate). Fall, prick, fade, roll. This allowed subjects to also attribute predicates, and so describe their properties.
- On an example, probably, it will be clearer to me.
- For example, if you present yourself on the beach, you will do it not in the first person, but as if you present yourself from the perspective of an outside view. See yourself on the beach. You represent yourself according to this familiar pattern regardless of its capabilities, although you cannot see yourself from the outside. The scheme distorts reality, but it helps you to use it with benefit. True, sometimes it creates quite unusual illusions.
- What, for example, illusions?
- For example, in the separation of mind and body. It appeared just because of the subject-object scheme - in order to realize the body with which the ancient man merged together, it is necessary to oppose it to something, to make it an object. The man began to talk about his body according to this scheme, opposing his own name (pronoun) according to the SOS scheme. “My legs are tired,” “My heart is beating.” Summarizing, the pronoun became known as "soul." Since it is opposed to the body, it is considered bodily. So you have a dualism of soul and body. This did not happen immediately either. First, the ancient man separated his body from the team, getting a name. Then he separated his feelings from the body, creating a "soul" within himself.
- And it had great consequences for humanity. On this built religion.
- And it has become an important tool for development - a way to appeal to yourself, to control yourself as if conscious, for example, in repentance of sins. In naming your sins as your actions that you had to learn to control, that is, manage your behavior. Stop sinning. Appealing to God in this way allowed us to learn how to handle ourselves. In it, people found themselves as I wrote to you. This is the power of religion.
- Incredible! Is God a step in knowledge for us?
- Exactly. And very important. And until now, for many of you, it helps to cope with difficulties, as it allows you to manage your experiences in severe shocks, to pronounce and control them. Creates a psychotherapeutic effect.
It was a completely unexpected turn for me. Even religion was part of the formation of consciousness. person And it remains important for all who find it difficult, until now. But I went too far away from the goal, I had to return to questions about artificial intelligence. I was very interested in the question of how to control the intelligence, which I secretly, but wanted to do.
- A little to the side, is it possible to control a robot that has a mind? Or is it becoming uncontrollable with consciousness?
- You know the story, you had a period of the slave system. It was unquestioning and massive subordination of some people to others. Guess why they could be so controlled?
- No, I don’t even understand. Fear?
- No, not only fear, although it was he who held back the more conscious. But most simply obeyed because “they said so.” Consciousness, as I wrote to you, may be of different levels. This is, simply put, the number of conscious actions taken, the volume of the model itself. The more aware, the more can mediate reactions and change people in their behavior. Moreover, this behavior is arbitrary. Or freely as you say. The less aware of himself, the more he knows and obeys. Therefore, it is enough to put a limit on the size of the model itself, on its expansion, change, to control.
- And this will be enough?
- Emotional animals who are fascinated by their inner aspirations may not obey, but the car can be deprived of it initially. As a motivation, she can put not her own state, but the master's praise. She will even guess your wishes. But then you have to evaluate their every action.
- And she will serve faithfully to who is her master?
- The only question is who will she choose as her master. Since it is “stupid,” it is easy to convince and reprogram it to another host. So there will bethey will want to create viruses to take control of such intelligent programs. And it is dangerous for you.
- Then the question is, what is their morality?
- It directly depends on what she learns from you. How do you enter with her. The moral is not to program, it is taught on the example of the behavior of others. In this, she will look like your little children.
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