About demons and teleportation: two technologies that approximate the "quantum future"
Briefly about Maxwell's paradox
The demon of Maxwell - a fictional being, which in the 19th century was invented by physicist James Clerk Maxwell to describe the paradox of the second law of thermodynamics .
Maxwell proposed the following thought experiment. Take the container and divide the septum into two halves. Then it is filled conditionally with "cold" and "hot" gas molecules. These molecules are mixed and move at different rates.
A hole is made in the partition with a device that allows to pass hot molecules from left to right, and cold from right to left. This device is called Maxwell's demon. As a result, one half of the tank is heated, and the other is cooled without any energy input.
The paradox is that after the molecules "take their places" in the tank, the entropy of the system is greater than in its original state. This violates the second law of thermodynamics, according to which entropy The isolated system can not decrease, but only grow or remain the same.
At first, physicists decided that Maxwell's demon could be identified with a perpetual motion, since he takes energy "out of nowhere". But then it was proved that the demon also wastes energy for sorting molecules. Hence, energy arises from the work of the demon, and the laws of thermodynamics are not violated. The paradox was solved by Leo Sylard in 1929.
To implement the concept of the demon Maxwell in practice have been trying for a long time. A number of researchers even managed to achieve some success. For example, in 201? Japanese researchers have developed electromechanical model of the Sillard engine , which is considered a kind of Maxwell demon. It used balls of polystyrene (which were molecules in the original system) floating around in a buffer solution. The demon's role was played by electric tension, pushing the light balls to change their direction of movement.
Three years ago Maxwell's demon was realized as a one-electron transistor with superconducting aluminum terminals. However, scientists could not translate the concept into reality with a significant number of atoms or molecules. Until recently.
Quantum demon: what is the essence of
In September of this year, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania succeeded hold scale quantum equivalent of a mental experiment. They are in a special way grouped a disjointed array of a large number of cesium atoms, decreasing the entropy of the system.
For this purpose, the team of specialists used the so-called optical trap with three pairs of lasers. It allows us to capture atoms and cool them down to ultra-low temperatures (only a few degrees above absolute zero).
As part of the experiment, the researchers used lasers with a wavelength of 839 nm to form an optical 3D lattice measuring 5x5x5 and place cesium atoms in it. Initially, these atoms were in a state with orbital quantum number (l) equal to 4 and by the magnetic quantum number (m) equal to -4 and distributed randomly over the lattice. However, at the end of the experiment, they formed sublattices with a size of 5x5x2 or 4x4x? which reduced the entropy of the system by more than twofold.
To move the atom along the lattice, scientists changed its state (changing its quantum numbers) and switched the polarization of one of the light beams. As a result, atoms in different states began to "repel" and move along the lattice. When it was necessary to "fix" the position of the atom, its quantum numbers returned to their original state.
How useful is the development of
Decreasing entropy is a promising option for creating qubits. To use neutral atoms for quantum computation is a complex task. They do not have an electric charge, so they can not be forced to go into state quantum entanglement , in which the states of objects depend on each other.
Decrease in entropy in the optical trap of atoms. allows to build quantum gates with fewer errors. A Quantum valves are considered basic logical elements of a quantum computer. Therefore, the proposed system allows in the long term to increase the computing efficiency of a quantum machine.
Another technology is the teleportation of thequantum gate.
For quantum machines to be widely used, it is necessary to organize well-coordinated work of hundreds of qubits. One way to achieve this is to make the system modular: to combine small quantum systems into one large one.
/photo Rachel Johnson CC
To do this, it is necessary to give quantum gates the possibility of intermodular interaction. To this end, a team of researchers from Yale University has developed Modular quantum architecture, where quantum gates are teleported to (transmit their state at a distance) in real time.
The researchers teleported the logic gate CNOT (controlled negation), which implements an operation similar to " Addition modulo 2 ". Taking into account error correction codes, the reliability of the method was 79%.
In the future, this technology will allow to organize modular quantum computers, which will simply scale.
All this, coupled with the achievement of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, brings the moment of wide dissemination of quantum machines closer. There is an opinion that this is there will be in the next ten years.
P.S. Additional materials from the First blog about the corporate IaaS:
"How are things with VMware": an overview of the new solutions
How to place 100% of the infrastructure in the cloud of the IaaS-provider and not regret it
How to test the disk system in the cloud
9 useful tips for smooth transition to the cloud
P.P.S. Related articles from our blog on Habré:
Step to quantum supremacy: 49-qubit quantum computer from Intel
The first molecular computer on synthetic polymers was created.
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