Contests that change the world. Part 1
The history of technological competitions is full of dramas, accomplishments and breakthroughs. Here and jumping out of burning airships, and undressing to cowards with a waiver of seat belts, to reduce the weight of the apparatus, and waiting for the payment of the prize for decades.
Finally, I waited for technological competitions to start in Russia and that I know a part of the team personally, they did the STI Olympiad for schoolchildren, and they did it normally.
I, in turn, hope to get rich by 2019 (will be 100 years from the date of patenting of the jet pack) and stir up the turbojet technology contest.
I dug up materials on the contests for a series of articles, today - a retrospective and a couple of little-known projects, the next publication will be about XPrize, then separately about DARPA contests, and possibly IARPA.
(By the way, even on here on Habr, there is a member of Google Lunar X PRIZE - 4110 )
entered the competition. John Harrison . A couple of years he studied shipbuilding and by 1735 finished the H1 clock. [/i]
Huge and heavy (almost 40 kg) pendulum clock with an average daily care of eight seconds showed an error of 150 miles longitude after sailing from London to Lisbon and back.
Similar results were shown in the model of H2 in 1741. In 1749 saw the light of the model H? where Harrison used a bimetal plate in the pendulum for temperature compensation and cardan suspension to compensate for rolling. These clocks were more accurate at sea than any others on land: the average daily care was less than two seconds, and after 45 days of navigation the accuracy of determining the longitude was only 10 miles. However, by that time the parliament had changed the terms of the competition - now it was not only exactness but also compactness that was required.
Harrison in 1760 introduced a new model, H? - no longer a pendulum, but with a balance.
The clock had a diameter of 12 centimeters and was checked during two voyages to the West Indies - in 1761 and 176? while leaving it was five seconds in three months of travel. But even after that the parliament did not hurry with the payment of money. The fact is that in 1757 the British naval officer John Campbell developed the construction of the sextant, a tool for measuring the angular distances between heavenly bodies. Parliament hoped that by using the tables of the Royal Observatory and Werner's method, longitude could be calculated "free" (Campbell was in the royal military service, and he did not rely on the prize). Harrison's hours were more convenient, and in the end, in March 1776 - on the 83rd birthday - he was paid a well-deserved award. Other holders of the Longitude Award are unknown.
In 179? Napoleon announced a reward of 1?000 francs to the one who will come up with how to store food for a long time.
In May 1809 the French chef was Nicolas Upper after 15 years of experience sent a letter to the Minister of the Interior, in which he proposed a new way of preserving the products. Instead of the salting and drying used up to that time, Upper used the method of conservation, which seemed to him similar to the storage of wine. In 181? Napoleon personally paid the prize to Nicolas Appper and gave the order to the quartermaster service to adopt the "appraisal" process. The method of preservation, developed by Apper, consisted in that the canned product was heated without access to oxygen to a temperature of 110-130 degrees Celsius. This allowed to significantly extend the life of the products. Subsequently, the method of preservation of Appert was improved due to the appearance of cans and the invention of pasteurization.
Henri Deutsch de la Mert ("Oil King of Europe") - a French "oilman" and a philanthropist, sponsored several competitions to accelerate the development of aviation.
In 1900 he announced a prize of 100 thousand francs (
? Deutsch de la Meurthe prize [/b] ) To anyone who could fly a distance of 11 km from Saint-Claude Park to the Eiffel Tower and return to the starting point on an airship or an airplane in less than 30 minutes.
Alberto Santos-Dumont, son of the coffee king, pioneer of aviation.
In July 1901 Santos-Dumont joined the fight for the award on his airship number 5. The balloon rose into the air, but, circling the tower, stopped, as the engine died down, and was carried by the wind to the park. During the second attempt in August of the same year, a hydrogen leakage occurred on the dirigible. The airship began to drop sharply and collided with the roof of the Trocadero hotel. There was a powerful explosion. Santos-Dumont hung on the keel of his airship and was taken off by firemen. On the same day, August ? Santos-Dumont began to develop plans for the construction of the airship No. 6.
October 1? 1901 because of the bad weather, only five out of twenty-five members of the commission arrived on the next flight of Santos-Dumont, among them was Deutsche de la Mert. After the signal of the chronometer, the airship No. 6 rose into the air, reached the Eiffel Tower, 9 minutes after the flight began, rounded it and headed back. The audience applauded, many went out to the streets.
The traffic stopped. Santos-Dumont had only 20 minutes to make a return trip against the wind at a risk of damaging the motor. Before the expiration of the time limit, only 5 minutes remained. Already being above Bois, the airship lost its altitude. In the last minutes the ball swayed close to the finish line. It took 29 minutes 30 seconds after the start. With effort, we managed to level it at an altitude of 120 meters and lower it until the mechanics caught the control rope. The chronometers showed 30 minutes and 29 seconds.
The Commission was not unanimous in its opinion. One member of the commission said that Santos-Dumont did not win the award, because he landed a few seconds after the deadline.
On November ? the commission met at the Aeroclub. Santos-Dumont was declared the winner by 14 votes to nine.
Grand Prix d'Aviation
In 1904 all the same Henri Deutsch de la Mert and Ernest Archdicon created a prize fund of 5?000 francs (
? Grand Prix d'Aviation [/b] ), which was to be given to the first pilot, flying a distance of one kilometer along a circular route on a heavier-than-air vehicle.
Henri Farman (Henri Farman) , in the past, bike and racing driver, abandoned his previous hobbies for aviation.
In 190? Farman purchased the aircraft and installed on it a number of European records. It first took off on September 3? 190? and on January 1? 190? Farman flew 1 km in 1 minute 28 seconds along a closed route and received the Deutsche-Archdikon Prize.
Raymond Desiree Orteig (1870 - June ? 1939) is an American businessman of French origin, the owner of 2 hotels "Hotel Lafayette" and "Brevoort Hotel" in Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan.
Being a wealthy New York businessman, May 1? 1919 Orteig at a grand meeting, arranged in honor of Eddie Rickenbacker , the most effective American ace of the First World War, offered $ 2?000 of prize money to the first pilot who would make a non-stop flight from New York to Paris for 5 years. Despite the fact that at that time it was a rather generous offer, it is believed that he did not take much chances, considering that at that time in the world there was not one plane with which to carry out a transatlantic flight. ( Wikipedia )
The announcement of this Orteig prize was inspired by post-war Franco-American cooperation. The result was nine independent attempts to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. Trying to win, several pilots were killed or injured. In 192? Orteig extended the prize fund of his name.
The transatlantic flight was accomplished by 25-year-old To Charles Lindberg single-handedly , which on May 2? 192? took off on Garden City, Long Island, New York and on May 2? landed at Le Bourget near Paris, thus becoming the owner of the prize of Raymond Orteig and the national hero of the United States.
Prior to Lindbergh, two British pilots-John Olcock and Arthur Brown-for the Newfoundland-Clifden route (Ireland) in 1919 made the first transatlantic flight from west to east. ( The spirit of St. Louis ". ( Spirit_of_St._Louis [/i]
In 192? Lindberg publishes the book "We", in which he talks in detail about his transatlantic flight. On behalf of the Daniel Guggenheim Foundation for the Development of Aeronautics, Lindberg flies through the United States. Then Lindbergh learned about the research of the pioneer rocket Robert Goddard, a professor of physics at Clark University, and convinced the Guggenheim family to support Goddard's experiments. These experiments later led to the creation of rockets, satellites and the beginning of space travel. Lindberg also worked for several airlines as a technical consultant. ( The Kremer Prize - a prize of £ 5?00? established in 1959 by British industrialist Henry Kremer for the first stable flight of the muscular vehicle.
August 2? 197? the apparatus "Gossamer Condor", built Paul McCready and Peter Lissaman, not only vertically took off, but also drew in the air the sign of infinity, proving thereby that such devices are capable of maneuvering in the air.
MacCready Gossamer Condor
Two years later, in197? McCready won another Kremer award, this time in the amount of 10?000 pounds, when he created the aircraft Gossamer Albatross , using the muscular strength of man, crossed the English Channel and flew from England to France - the first time in the history of mankind.
In both cases, the "muscle" was piloted by American cyclist-professional Brian Allen. Distance of ??? meters, he overcame in 2 hours 49 minutes with an average speed of 12.7 km /h. The device on which the flight range record was set was of an aircraft type: as a propulsion device, a propeller was used. The engine was the muscular legs of a cyclist, rotating the pedals.
Built by McCready plane Gossamer Albatross (in its frame instead of aluminum, carbon fiber was used) flew 35 km and crossed the English Channel, spending 2 hours 49 minutes on it.
Now there are 3 more not-played nominations for the Kremer prize, worth £ 15?000:
26 mile Marathon, you must fly in less than an hour (£ 5?000),
Competition for maneuverability (£ 10?000),
Local competitions for young people (under 18 years) in the UK.
Prize of Sikorsky - was established in 1980 by the American Helicopter Society to encourage the development of a helicopter-type muscle that meets a number of stringent requirements: the device should be in the air for at least 60 seconds and rise to a height of at least three meters, while not moving away from the launch point more than at 10 meters.
In 201? 33 years after the establishment of the prize, he was officially awarded a team of students and graduates of the University of Toronto under the name AeroVelo , who built the Atlas apparatus, which made a flight that meets these requirements.
Atlas at the peak of its historic flight on June 1? 2013. The car remained in the air for 64 seconds and reached a height of ??? meters, while being within the square with sides at 9.8 meters.
During the existence of the prize more than 20 teams have developed and built helicopters on muscular traction, but only five of them have ever risen in the air. (
M Prize - this scientific competition is organized in order to attract attention to the possibilities of new technologies for slowing or even reversing the damage caused by the aging process, while maintaining health and mental abilities. The prize fund from 1.5 million to 4 million dollars.
The Methuselah Foundation - a medical nongovernmental organization engaged in the financing and support of scientific research aimed at radical extension of human life. The Foundation is headed by the well-known gerontologist Aubrey de Gray .
The object of the project are mice (species
? Mus musculus
). The winners are researchers who have been able to significantly extend their lives. Any method of laboratory exposure is permitted provided that this does not impair the mental and physical state of the mice.
The bonus consists of two parts:
Longevity Prize - an absolute record of life expectancy.
Rejuvenation Prize - Rejuvenation of adult mice.
The average life expectancy of mice is 2 years. Here are some examples of mice-long-livers of the awarded fund of Methuselah:
Mouse Yoda lived about 4 years, which corresponds to 136 human years
Mouse Charlie lived 1551 days, breaking the record of his predecessor (Yoda)
The mouse GHR-KO 11C lived 1819 days - about 200 years by human standards.
The L Prize (aka the Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize) is a competition initiated by the United States Department of Energy to "encourage lighting manufacturers to develop a high-quality, high-performance solid-state lighting device to replace a conventional incandescent lamp.
The prize fund was to replace 60 W - $ 10 million, to replace the PAR 38 - $ 5 million
H-Prize - competitions in the field of hydrogen energy.
There are three nominations:
4 prizes of $ 1 million, are awarded every two years to someone who will improve the generation, storage, distribution and utilization of hydrogen.
1 prize of $ 4 million for a working prototype of a hydrogen car with excellent performance.
$ 10 million grand prize, is given only once for the whole program to someone who will make a technological breakthrough.
Continuation about XPrize, DARPA, IARPA follows
In July, the reception of applications for the first technological competitions in Russia started. Up Great . The concept of competitions is created on the model of international engineering competitions - "challenges" XPrize, Darpa Grand Challenge, etc. The prize fund of the Up Great contests in Russia will be 3-333772. 375 million rubles. [/b] The event is supported and financed by the state. They are held within the framework of the National Technological Initiative. The contest operator is the Russian Venture Company.
Technological competitions present minimal requirements to the formal composition of participants. In fact, anyone can try to try to solve a competitive task. The main informal "entry threshold" is a set of knowledge, competences and know-how in a certain technological area, without which it is impossible to approach the decision of the competitive task.
The technological barrier is :
A significant unresolved technological problem that prevents the emergence of a new product in the new market
No one in the world achieved, but the desired level of technology capabilities (characteristics), when it reaches a sharp increase in demand for this technology
Competitions in Up Great contests can be made by Russian and foreign engineering teams, universities, scientific organizations and engineering offices. If the team of developers wins, the money prize is divided equally among them.
Financing . Developments are conducted for the participants' own funds. Rights to the results of intellectual activity belong to the participants.
In July, the three technological competitions Up Great:
"Winter City" Development of an unmanned vehicle capable of moving autonomously in the winter and at different times of the day, in compliance with the Russian Federation Road Traffic Rules (hereinafter referred to as the "Road Traffic Regulations") in the context of urban infrastructure, with the possible absence of road markings, low roadability, traffic and traffic jams, at the level of the average driver.
More details [/b]
Participants of the contest "Winter City" should develop an unmanned vehicle. "Filling" should allow the car to confidently and safely move in any climatic and road conditions. Both in the daytime and at night, in conditions of urban congestion and along the road, with the destruction of the roadway, etc.
Now, the vast majority of unmanned technologies in the world are produced under controlled conditions and predictable weather conditions - dry track, good visibility. This is due to both the available level of technology development and objective factors - most start-ups in the industry appear in the United States, where the climate is mostly dry and hot.
Nevertheless, to achieve high levels of autonomy, it is necessary to test cars under extreme conditions, including with reduced visibility and uneven road surfaces. One of the first to solve this problem began the American company Ford, which in winter 2016 experienced a technology ride in the snow conditions at the range in Michigan. In 201? an American start-up DriveAI tested an unmanned vehicle in the rain, at night, on ordinary roads. The testing of unmanned vehicles in the rain is also handled by Waymo. The current level of technology allows the drone to move around with a slight rain, but for a shower for safety reasons, an emergency stop occurs.
The final tests of the Up Great Contest will be held in the winter of 2019 at a specially equipped training ground. The participating cars will have to travel 50 km faster than 3 hours by independently plotting the route taking into account the presence of other vehicles on the range, observing traffic rules and not provoking other participants to violations. On the track will be created additional difficulties, such as ice, snow, lack of roadway, traffic congestion. To win it is necessary to pass the route faster than others, while demonstrating the high quality of driving. The winning team will receive 175 million rubles.
"The first element. The Earth » creation of power plants on hydrogen fuel cells, comparable in efficiency to traditional energy sources on vehicles, for medium-sized vehicles, i.e. for cars and motorcycles, small vessels, small aircraft and heavy unmanned aerial vehicles.
More details [/b]
Participants of the other two Up Great contests will have to create hydrogen fuel cells for air and land vehicles.
Hydrogen has the highest internal energy per unit of weight in comparison with other fuels, while being environmentally friendly - the by-product of the reaction in the fuel cell is pure water. Toyota Mirai passenger car with hydrogen fuel cells for 100 km runs produces about 6 liters of water. And no greenhouse gases. Compared with lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen fuel cells do not require charging and have a longer service life.
The research in the field of hydrogen energy is now carried out by the world's leading auto giants - Toyota, Honda, Hyundai. In April 201? Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced his government's intention to gradually abandon hydrocarbon fuel and move to a hydrogen economy. According to him, by 2030 there should already be 80?000 cars with hydrogen engines in the country.
Under the terms of the competition - "The first element. Earth "participants must mount an energy plant with a capacity of 15 kW in the volume of 150 liters per unmanned automobile platform, and then take part in the race. The winner will be the one who will stay on the track longer than the rest. Teams will receive a platform that includes an electric motor, chassis, control system - that is, a "box", where they need to fit the entire system.
"The first element. Air » creation of power plants on hydrogen fuel cells comparable in efficiency with traditional energy sources on vehicles, for small unmanned vehicles, i.e. for ground, flying and floating drones of small sizes.
More details [/b]
The participants must mount the most efficient and light energy installation based on fuel cells with a capacity of 1.3 kW at the multicopter platform presented by the organizers of the competition, after which it must stay in the air for at least three hours. The one who will last the longest in the air will win. The teams will have to provide any source of hydrogen, inside of which the pressure at no point should exceed three hundred atmospheres, and the temperature - 100 degrees Celsius - these are the safety requirements.
Complex Turing test. Artificial Intelligence.
The Kibatellite. Development of assistive technologies.
Competition them. Stakhanov. Increase in labor productivity.
Technology management of the drones swarm.
10 little known premium engines of progress
Amazing musculosceae of the Sioullan aerodrome
Russian XPrize: how are the national technological competitions
How are innovations that change the world born? Review of technological competitions
ASI, RVC and the Skolkovo Foundation organize new national and international technological competitions in the logic of STI
Technological competitions of STI
Technological competition of STI "Winter City"
Technological competition of STI "Hydrogen energy on fuel cells"
What are the benefits of technological competitions
The main task of the department is the development and promotion of the system of technological competitions and initiatives
The inventor Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873 - 1932)