Computer vision and philosophy
Science and philosophy in principle describe the process of visual perception of a person in different ways.
Science: Information processes in living and non-living systems proceed in a uniform manner.
The founder of cybernetics Norbert Wiener believed that the processes of information processing in living and nonliving systems proceed in a uniform manner. Therefore, he called the book on cybernetics created by him a new science - cybernetics, or control and communication in an animal and a machine (1948)
Similarly, the creators of the first artificial neural network, J. McCulloch and W. Pitts, were confident that in their work they repeat the structure of the human nervous system. The description of the network was given in the work "Logical Calculus of Ideas Relating to Nervous Activity" (1943)
The desire of the creators of information technology to repeat the structure and functions of the human nervous system is quite understandable. It is due to the fact that a person is a "natural converter of information", and therefore a model for technical imitation.
In this case, the mechanism of appearance of visual images in the eye, and the human brain, as well as in the camera obscura, which is the basis of various optical devices, at first glance seems completely identical.
Formation of visual images in the human eye and brain.
Formation of visual images in the camera obscura
Philosophy: Information processes in living and non-living systems proceed in different ways.
It would seem that the natural way of development of IT, connected with the copying of the human nervous system, allowing to repeat its mental functions, conceals a serious problem that significantly complicates the implementation of this project. About this problem in the XVIII century. wrote I. Kant, who claimed that the characteristics of objects that a person sees in the process of observing the world do not belong to the objects themselves, but to the human consciousness that generates these characteristics in the process of sight.
Kant wrote about this: " If we remove our subjective properties, it turns out that the object observed by a person with the qualities attributed to him in the sensual visual representation is nowhere found, and can not be found anywhere, since it is our subjective properties that determine his form as a phenomenon ". (I. Kant "Critique of Pure Reason").
In other words, according to Kant, those images that a person sees while observing the surrounding world are not exact copies of objects of this world. These images seem to be formed from scratch by themselves, observing the world by consciousness, on which the characteristics of visual images depend. Therefore, artificial vision, based on Kant's philosophy, must differ from existing optical computer systems. It should not be a process of optical copying of objects with subsequent mathematical processing of the characteristics of copied images, but create these images anew. How does this happen, for example, when a person creates a work of pictorial art, the images of which, although related to objective reality, differ substantially from it, and always carry a subjective imprint of the creator-the person who created them. This subjective "imprint" of the creative person forms for the visual images born in his consciousness their aesthetics and semantics, which modern computer vision systems try to determine only by formal features, without revealing the underlying nature of these subjective characteristics.
Scientific confirmation of the philosophical ideas of Kant
Kant's idea of creating visual images, that is, creating them from scratch, is confirmed by the neurophysiology of human vision.
Indeed, initially information about the world around the person, falls into his eye with a stream of reflected and scattered from the objects rays of light. Then, on the retina of the eye, the light is transformed into electrical impulses that go through the optic nerve to the brain.
As a result of this transformation, which carries information about objects, light having a frequency of hundreds of trillions of hertz (400-800 THz), electrical impulses on the retina of the eye, having a frequency of the order of 1000 cps, are hundreds of millions of times smaller than the frequency of light. These impulses, delivered by the optic nerve to the brain and take part in creating images of objects, from which reflected light. Thus, there is no light in the brain. Therefore, the image that a person sees is formed by the electrical impulses of his brain.
In this case, visual images can arise in the mind of a person and generally without the participation of light. For example, in a dream or hallucinations. Which again confirms Kant's idea that visual images are not optical copies of objects, but their own products of consciousness
At the same time, no one has ever seen the brain of visual images. Indeed, no methods of brain research - tomography, radiography, implanted electrodes, EEG or direct neurosurgical intervention, allow an external observer to detect in the human brain visual images that make up his vision, thinking, sleeping, or emotional experiences.
In the brain, there are only electrical impulses moving in different directions from one neuron to another - the electrical codes of the brain. However, the way in which frequency electric codes are transformed into images that have aesthetics and semantics is not known to science.
That's what the scientific director of the Institute of the Brain, 1990-200? says about this. Bechterew in his lecture "The Human Living Brain and How It Is Examined" (29. 09. 2000): "When we started working with implanted electrodes, the world had a very diametrical attitude to this. Including it was said that all this is very scary. Then they thought that you can enter information into the brain. But while the code of thought is not deciphered until we know exactly how a concrete thought is being formed, it is possible to introduce such a thing, only it will not give anything substantial, because there is no language on which this chip will communicate with the brain. "
The language of communication between the chip and the brain, which Bekhterev speaks of, implies a certain frequency code of electrical impulses that corresponds to a certain thought or image in their meaningful form, that is, thoughts about something and the image of something. For example, thoughts about the house and the image of the house. However, what should be the code corresponding to any particular word or image is unknown. At least N.P. Bekhtereva denies this knowledge.
Therefore, it turns out that today it is impossible to introduce into the brain any electrical code that gives birth in a person's mind a certain image, thought or word, because the mechanism for converting the code into an image that is not a code is not known to date.
As the well-known mechanism for converting code to word, Morse code can be cited, where each letter corresponds to a certain set of binary symbols - dots or dashes, the sequence of which can be combined into a definite word consisting of letters.
For the brain, such a correlation of code sites with images or words is not found.
At the same time, a person receives any information that comes to him only in code form. So the auditory information is delivered to him in the form of an available binary numbering of the frequency code of air waves.
And visual information is delivered to a person in the form of code, formed by waves of visible light.
Waves of light
However, as the transformation of the electric codes of the brain into which light or sound is transformed, into sensory visual or audible images of the human consciousness - science does not know. In philosophy, however, in contrast to science, there are certain hypotheses about this.
But, before reproducing the philosophical concept of vision, it is necessary to make a fundamental difference between science and philosophy.
Differences in the knowledge of the world by science and philosophy.
A scientist knows the world through an empirical study of material reality. He examines the material objects in a microscope and a telescope, he measures them, weighs them, determines their density and the system of interrelations of the constituent elements. Then, on the basis of the obtained data, he constructs a theory describing the world.
The philosopher, in the process of exploring the world, proceeds in an entirely different way. He does not measure anything and does not weigh. He is generally of little interest in the world around him. Because his ideas about the world he takes not from the reality surrounding him, but from the depths of his own soul. Therefore, the typical figure of the philosopher is the Greek Diogenes, sitting in a barrel. This barrel protects Diogenes from the outside world, allowing him to immerse himself in his own inner world, contemplation of which reveals to him the structure of the universe.
Thus, plunging into themselves, the world learned Plato, Plotinus, Blessed Augustine, Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, etc. At the same time, the reliability of knowledge obtained by philosophers in the process of self-contemplation is determined only by the intuitive feeling of all other people that everything that philosophers say - true. It is this feeling of truthfulness of philosophical revelations that allowed the philosophy to survive for many millennia and become the basis of human culture. At the same time, the possibility of extracting the universe from the depths of one's own soul is explained by the long-standing philosophical intuition that the inner world of man is like a global universe, while the laws of human thought and the laws of the dynamics of the universe are one. Therefore, a person already knows from birth how the universe works and philosophy only formulates this knowledge.
Thus, starting from his inner, intuitive knowledge of the world, the great Greek philosopher Plato in his work "The State", revealed the mechanism of visual perception of a person by the surrounding reality.
According to Plato, man perceives the world not directly in the rays reflected from the objects of light, but only mediated. Plato wrote that a man his whole life, as if in a dark cave, with his back to her exit. From behind him, the rays of light project on the wall of the cave reflecting bodies and objects, creating a man's illusion that he sees the real world.
The Cave of Plato
There are several interpretations of this theory of Plato's view.
The first, the most common and banal of them, is that a person is imperfect and incapable of perceiving the world in all its complexity, brightness, beauty and multidimensionality. His perception of the world is dull and wretched.
The second is a less banal interpretation, which says that Plato's cave is very much like a pinhole camera. At the same time, in Plato's time, in Greece there was still no obscura about the camera. However, Plato, like all other philosophers, creating his theories, was guided not by scientific discoveries, but by his own intuition, which tells him how people and the world are organized. This intuition prompted him that a person sees objects not in a direct stream of light reflected from them, but perceives reality only on some surface radiating or reflecting light. This surface subsequently after many centuries after Plato was discovered in a pinhole camera, which was used for various optical technologies. Then it turned out that the eye of a man is arranged in the likeness of a camera obscura or the cave of Plato. The eye also represents a closed space, with an entrance hole for light and a back wall on which the incident light projects the reflections of objects.
Eye - camera obscura
And, finally, the third, most nontrivial interpretation of Plato's theory of vision is that according to Plato's philosophy, a person lives in a living global universe, the dynamics of which are reflected in his life. This universe takes a direct part in all the mental processes of man. This means that vision, as well as thinking, as well as life, occurs with the participation of two actors - a person and the universe associated with it. Therefore, Plato's cave is the global universe in which man is located. This universe is organized in the likeness of a camera obscura, on the screen-matrix which unfolds all events taking place in it. This matrix also forms the consciousness of a person, which belongs both to man himself and the entire global universe. This matrix also transforms the electrical impulses that flow in the human brain into visual images, seen by a person observing the surrounding reality. This participation of the universe in the processes of human life, thinking and perception of the surrounding world makes these processes themselves non-local, that is, not closed in the human body, but spread far beyond its limits.
Moreover, without taking into account the nonlocality of human life and mental processes, it is impossible to construct their adequate models, which have not been created in science until now, which does not use the notion of nonlocality for their description. At the same time, modern science knows many nonlocal processes taking place in the field of physics, chemistry, and biology.
Nonlocal phenomena in physics, chemistry and psychology.
Science knows many examples of nonlocal phenomena whose dynamics are determined not only by the properties of the objects with which they occur, but also by the participation in them of the space-time continuum of the universe.
One example of nonlocal phenomena is gravity. So according to A. Einstein's theory of relativity, the gravitational forces that connect the material bodies with each other depend not only on the characteristics of interacting bodies, but also on the curved space of the Universe moving these bodies to each other.
whatAs for chemistry, non-local phenomena occur here in the form of auto-oscillations of chemical reactions called Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactions. These reactions flow not linearly, but wavy, periodically changing the concentration of the substances participating in them, the color of the solution obtained, its temperature, etc. Scientists who discovered these fluctuations for a long time could not publish the results of their discovery, since the oscillations did not stem from the characteristics of the substances involved in the chemical reaction and were therefore considered impossible. It is possible to explain the undulating course of these chemical reactions only by their nonlocal nature, that is, by influencing the described chemical reactions of fluctuations in the space-time continuum in which they occur.
A wide range of nonlocal phenomena of a very different nature from the decay of radioactive elements to the reactions of muscle proteins were discovered by the laboratory of prof. S.E. Shnolya. A large number of measurements showed that the most diverse physical and chemical processes with the passage of time experience identical wave-like fluctuations that do not depend on the characteristics of the objects participating in these fluctuations.
Waves of Shnol
But since the waves recorded in the measurements were not related to the nature of the measured processes, the scientists concluded that the appearance of waves is caused by external influences - fluctuations in the space-time continuum of the universe. Here is what S. Shnol writes about this: "As a result of many years of research it has been shown that the" scatter of results "of measurements of processes of completely different nature - chemical and biochemical reactions, noise in electronic circuits, thermal noise in a gravitational antenna, inexplicable by methodological reasons , all types of radioactive decay - is due to fluctuations in space-time "(SE Shnol" Cosmophysical factor in random processes "Stockholm (Sweden): Svenska fysikarkivat).
Nonlokality is also present in the psychology of man, determining the course of human life. Swiss psychotherapist K.G. Jung describes it in his work "Synchronicity."
According to Jung's concept, various events of human life follow each other not in a chaotic sequence, but obey a certain regularity that reflects the connection of the person's intrapsychic experiences with the external events taking place with him.
So, for example, in medical practice there are such days when patients with the same problem, the same complaints and circumstances of their illness address the doctor. Moreover, this happens not only in the professional practice of a doctor, but also in his personal life, when the same diseases occur in his relatives, acquaintances, he sees them in the movies, he encounters them in the pages of fiction.
As a result of the analysis of these identical events occurring simultaneously in psychic and physical life, Jung saw the existence of so-called objective meanings. These meanings unite the psychic and physical life of a person into a single whole, which begin to repeat each other, as if materializing the images and thoughts that arise in the human mind. Jung wrote about this: "Synchronism means the simultaneous occurrence of a certain mental state with one or more external events that look like semantic analogues of the instantaneous subjective state - and, in certain cases, vice versa. (Karl Gustav Jung "Synchronicity").
According to this concept, not only the person but the world around him is involved in the realization of human desires, abilities and talents, as if helping musically gifted people become musicians seeking knowledge - scientists, and seeking mystical truths - adherents of different religions.
Thus, the phenomenon of "synchronicity" involves both the person who is the subject of experiences, and the universe, organizing, external events occurring with the person, corresponding to his inner experiences. This participation of the universe in all events occurring in it is due to the fact that it represents a holistic continuum, the dynamics of which determines all the processes that are taking place in it.
The continuum is
In physical science, this universe continuum is called a spatio-temporal continuum (Einstein). In modern philosophy - the information continuum. In ancient ancient philosophy - Logos (Heraclitus) or the soul of the universe (Plotinus).
This universal continuum takes a direct part in the processes of life, thinking and perception of the person around the world. It reflects the electrical codes of the brain, turning into images and thoughts that arise in the human mind.
Therefore, when creating models of artificial vision and artificial intelligence, this continuum must necessarily be involved. However, ways to use the continuum and manage it - this is another story.
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