Money likes to score: how machines sort bills
For many years now we have received salaries for bank cards, pay utility services through an Internet bank and transfer money from the card to the card using a mobile application. But only in this digital picture of the new non-cash world there is one nuance: the turnover of cash does not decrease, but only grows year after year. And together with it the sphere of service of cash payments grows. Therefore, until now, the sorting and accounting of banknotes remains a demanded direction in the banking sector. Is there any place for innovation? We read our new post under the cut.
for many. Report , in which he cited data on the segment of cash circulation in 23 major economies of the world, including Russia. According to him, from 2012 to 201? the share of cash payments to GDP after a small decrease resumed growth. A notable exception was Sweden, where refusal of cash supported by the banking sector.
Volume of cash in circulation in countries, billions of US dollars
The reasons for the popularity of cash in the world are quite prosaic: the incomplete retail supply of terminals for accepting cards, the surcharge for non-cash in a number of countries and the conservatism of customers. So the dreams of the imminent transition of the global financial system to total blockade and electronic payments will not soon come to life.
So, banks and other organizations need to process cash quickly and efficiently. Take for example a bank serving a network of popular retail stores. After the collection and receipt of a huge mass of cash, the bank needs to count it, check all the banknotes for authenticity, transfer funds to the client's account, and send the surplus money to the depository or the Central Bank. To make such a complex complex operation every day, it will take a huge staff of very attentive people. Or several automated cash handling systems.
Banknote: there and back
As of July 2018 in Russia, the amount of cash in circulation amounted to ??? billion banknotes (in units, not rubles) - that's not counting 66 billion coins. Almost all this money is constantly circulating through banks, briefly lingering on the hands of individuals.
After you pay the bill in the store, it is sent with the collection to the bank that serves the retail point. There, the money is recounted, sorted and sent to the bank's store. With the accumulation of cash in the depositories, private banks send it to the Central Bank of Russia, where the received funds are credited to correspondent accounts of banks. When private banks once again need to replenish their cash reserves, they "withdraw" them from their account through the Central Bank, receiving banknotes with collectors.
The central bank is the alpha and omega of the economy. The Central Bank is engaged in the issue of banknotes, and it also controls the entire money supply in the country, removing old bills from circulation and introducing new ones. Receiving cash from the banks, the Central Bank sorts it according to the degree of depreciation, sending out old bills for processing. In exchange for new notes are introduced. That is why Russia does not meet worn out and torn banknotes (
? an excellent report on The Village
on this topic). After sorting, the money supply is packaged and sent to storage or given to banks. From there, bundles of money with 100 banknotes, called banknotes in the banking language, diverge at the banks' cash desks, ATMs and trade outlets.
In the museums of the US Federal Reserve, you can buy a souvenir package of cash prunings left after the dismantling of dilapidated dollars
Source: Michael W. /yelp.com
Brief history of the money sorting
Until the 1920s, even the largest volumes of money were considered by hand - by the forces of bank employees. For example, the US Federal Reserve cash centers were gloomy rooms with bars on the windows, where employees, while sitting at large wooden tables close to each other, manually counted and checked the authenticity of incoming banknotes. It was necessary to make sure that in each received bundle of money exactly 100 denominations of one denomination, and the authenticity check was carried out by eye in the literal sense of the word - a suspicious banknote was sent to a simple device where it was carefully compared to the original sample on the grid, estimating the coincidence of the figure.
A rare counterfeiter of Porter's counterfeits, in which a suspicious bill on the grid was compared to a real banknote.
Source: Heritage Auctions Inc.
In the 1920s, the first automatic sorting machine for banknotes produced by Federal Bill Counter Company appeared. The device placed a stack of notes in bundles of 100 banknotes. Once in one of the output trays recruited a hundred, the machine stopped, and the operator separated the finished bundle with a wooden partition and started the sorting again. And although the machine was sometimes mistaken, its accuracy was much higher than that of professional sorters.
One of the first machines to count money. No authentication or sorting - only counting the number of bills.
The first sorting device operated in the US Federal Reserve System with virtually no change in design until the late 1960s. Along with the mechanisms in the cash-centers of the FRS, people-sorters continued to work. A newcomer in this position processed about 15 sacks of one-dollar bills a day. With the accumulation of experience, people were able to access large denomination bills that required special attention when checking for authenticity. For example, in the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia there were 55 sorters, of which only a few people were allowed to work with 50- and 100-dollar bills.
The cost and inefficiency of human labor was obvious, but the technologies of that time did not allow to completely replace people in the matter of sorting and checking money. To somehow speed up the process, the counting of small denominations (up to $ 20) was started by weighing - the mass of a bundle of 100 banknotes pulled by a ribbon was compared to a standard bundle. This method though accelerated the sorting, but had a number of serious drawbacks: from the sorting process, the stage of testing worn and torn banknotes requiring replacement was lost.
During the hyperinflation of 1923 in the Weimar Republic (Germany), money was also considered a weigh-in, only there they were engaged not in bank employees, but in ordinary people. Here and there in the world and today so
In the early 1970s, a new design machine was invented in Japan, which quickly gained popularity and became the standard for all counting and sorting devices. This design is well known to everyone who has ever seen counting machines in the banks' cash desks: notes from the stack with the help of rollers are separated by one piece and quickly fed to the accounting unit. Each banknote passed through it closes the control contact, thus counting the past bills.
In 198? together with the beginning of digitalization of everything and everything, a revolutionary REI High-Speed counter appears in banks, capable of sorting banknotes at face value and verifying their authenticity. And all this with a fantastic speed of up to 72 thousand bills per hour. This machine has become the progenitor of all modern sorting devices of the full cycle - in fact, the newest machines repeat the functionality of REI High-Speed, differing with greater accuracy, speed and additional capabilities.
Recycling - autonomous sorting
One of the new trends in the banking sector, which is still not widespread in Russia, has been cash-recycling - the turnover of cash that has been deposited into an ATM. ATMs with the function of receiving money are installed in the offices of many banks. Through such devices, you can either withdraw funds from the card or throw cash into the account. The money in such ATMs is divided into two independent masses: in one cassette bank is filled with bills for delivery, in another cassette sent banknotes made by customers. Contrary to the stereotypes, money transferred through cash-in goes with the collection to the bank, and not given to other people when withdrawing cash.
ATMs with the function of cache-recycling make it possible to issue money to other customers. But for this it is not enough just to combine the cassettes - you need to install a compact counting-sorting machine in the ATM with the verification of the authenticity of the banknotes. Recycling ATMs, just like large machines in bank branches, take out bills in terms of depreciation, sending to a separate tray those that are unsuitable for further issuance by the ATM. If suspicious banknotes are found among the funds deposited, they are also withdrawn by the ATM from further circulation, and the data of the used card is recorded.
By the way, it's quite easy to distinguish between cash-in and recycling ATM: a single tray for accepting and issuing notes is used for cache-recycling, whereas for a conventional cash-in device, there are two of them - one for deposit and one for delivery.
Tinkoff Bank also uses only an ATM with cash-recycling - they reduce the number of cash collections and at the same time do not go beyond the size of conventional ATMs.
Source: Blog of the company Tinkoff.ru /habr.com
The use of cash-recycling for banks is obvious, because self-sufficient ATMs reduce the frequency of collection. If you need to maintain a network of thousands of ATMs, recycling results in impressive savings. For example, in China, recycling allowed reduce the cost of processing cash turnover by 70%. In Russia, a gradual commissioning of cash machines with cash-recycling has already begun, and "Mail Bank" (formerly "Summer Bank") uses exclusively recycling devices. In the total amount in Russia is 203 thousand ATMs , half of which has the function of receiving money. Their gradual replacement for recycling devices will give huge savings on cash logistics.
The problem of trust
One of the main tasks when working with cash is to check their authenticity. If for the cash register of a small store there are enough simple detectors that are familiar to everyone, then on the scale of banks, the most complicated detectors are needed, checking banknotes for all machine-readable characteristics. What kind of symptoms are we talking about?
Banknotes have dozens of signs for checking them for authenticity, some of which can be checked with your own eyes using a magnifying glass, and some are read only by special scanners. Person-readable features include, for example, metallized tape, microprinting, hologram, relief printing, perforation and so on. Machine readable include images visible in IR and UV rays, magnetic marks, special elements with phosphorescent and light-absorbing paint, and even secret signs that no one knows except the issuer of the bill, that is, the Central Bank.
Rubles are very entertaining to study all degrees of protection. On the website of the Central Bank of Russia you can find out about signs of authenticity - most of them check the counting-sorting machines.
Faultless recognition of counterfeit banknotes of the highest quality is a very difficult task for sorting machines. For use in Russian banks only those machines are allowed that have passed complex tests at the Central Bank . The list of sorting machines allowed by the Central Bank is small, but among them there is Toshiba IBS-1000.
How does the counting-sorting machinework?
A modern sorting machine for banknotes is a complex device with the simplest interface. For example, with a high-speed sorter Toshiba IBS-1000 any person can cope after a short twenty-minute training, since all control of the device is via a touch screen and a very concise interface.
Toshiba IBS-1000 with two modules - advanced sorting /licking and a bumper module. The whole design is placed on a wide office desk.
Copyright: Toshiba Corporation
The money is placed in the receiving tray. The IBS-1000 loading pocket accommodates 2000 denominations of any denomination - it is a stack of about 25 cm high. Just imagine such a lot of money and estimate how long it will take one person to count and decompose at face value. And after a manual account, such a stack of money would be good to count - even when counting hundreds of bills it's easy to make a mistake.
The most productive banknote sorters become heroes of video on YouTube, but in reality they lose machines in speed and accuracy of counting.
The layman can flip through the banknotes at a rate of 3 sheets per second. Masters of the five-finger account scroll 7-8 notes per second. Toshiba IBS-1000 accurately processes more than 16 bills per second, counting, turning and sorting them at face value and degree of wear. The latter is very important, since the banknotes have three degrees of depreciation: "ATM" (excellent condition, suitable for ATMs), "suitable for issuance through banks' cash desks" and "dilapidated", sent for disposal in shredders. The sorting statistics for accounting are saved to the server.
Demonstration of the work of IBS-1000
IBS-1000 has six pockets in the base, into which it distributes banknotes of different denominations, checking them in IR, UV-rays, and also scanning the visible image and magnetic marks. If you want to weed out all the old bills, the machine will look for banknotes with stains, physical injuries and scotch tape.
In two minutes the machine will sort out 2000 banknotes. To the IBS-100? you can connect an expansion module and a bumper module. The first device has four additional pockets, as well as the module of the front or, more simply, the turning of the bills by the right side. This is necessary to receive accurate packs, ready for banding and loading into ATMs.
And what is banding? So in the banking language is called fastening a stack of 100 banknotes with a tape indicating the denomination of denominations, the amount of money and bank details. With this expansion module, the Toshiba IBS-1000 does not just sort the money,and issues ready-made bundles of banknotes - "roots". The machine will unmistakably do the work of the entire department in just a few minutes, while it is placed on one table, and it can be operated by one operator.
So far, cash is in no hurry to disappear from circulation, which means that the counting and sorting machines remain in demand in all countries where paper or plastic money is used. Even in Sweden.
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